# Fluid Flow Theory Slideshare

This note explains the following topics: Fluid Statics, Kinematics of Fluid, Conservation Equations and Analysis of Finite Control Volume, Equations of Motion and Mechanical Energy, Principles of Physical Similarity and Dimensional Analysis, Flow of Ideal Fluids Viscous Incompressible Flows, Laminar Boundary Layers, Turbulent Flow, Applications of Viscous Flows. Fundamentals of Fluid Flow in Porous Media. The pressure of a fluid is defined as the force acting per unit area within the fluid. Darcy’s law is the equation that defines the ability of a fluid to flow through a porous media such as rock. Lec-3 Fluid Statics. The flow of a fluid can be represented by Streamlines, which are 'fluid elements' that move relative to each other. An Introduction to Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transport The subject of transport phenomena describes the transport of momentum, energy, and mass in the form of mathematical relations [ 1 ]. The text presents a commitment to the development of student problem-solving skills and features many of the same pedagogical aids unique to Hibbeler texts. 1 Introduction In this chapter, the basic jet theory is explained in detail. Develop the fundamental principles underlying the subject. In the particle theory fluids flow because the particle theory states that A fluid will flow faster if the partcles are rubbing against each other and attract to eachother. FLUID FLOW MOTION OF OBJECTS IN FLUIDS ? How can a plane fly? Why does a cricket ball swing or a baseball curve? In the real world all objects move through fluids so we must include the forces exerted by the extremely large number of fluid molecules. 1 Shear Flow The shear formula in Solid Mechanics I ( τ = VQ/It ) is useful as it helps us to find the critical τ max , which would help us to design a safe structure that can withstand. Shear flow helps us to determine the shear force distribution in each portion of the cross-section, and is necessary to help us work out the shear centre. Toshio Nakayama** - Sample CFD Results * University of Sydney ** Tohoku University contact: m. By incorporating the fluid-dynamic forces obtained from this modified potential-flow theory in a stability analysis, the threshold for fluid-elastic instability is predicted. 5 Fixed and Fluidized Bed Facts which at first seem improbable will, even in scant explanation, drop the cloak which has hidden them and stand forth in naked and simple beauty. volume of the fluid element per unit change in pressure p p p p v p +dp p +dp p +dp p +dp v −dv Compressible Flow 1. Boundary layer theory When a real fluid will flow over a solid body or a solid wall, the particles of fluid will adhere to the boundary and there will be condition of no-slip. The flow is determined using a sudden enlargement, venturi meter, orifice plate, elbow and a rotameter. Reactor Theory and Practice Plug Flow Reactor (PFR) The third general type of reactor is the Plug Flow Reactor (PFR). A non-uniform flow is one in which velocity is not constant at a given instant. Mach Number: 2. The definitive test for fluid responsiveness is a Fluid challenge. [email protected] Lec-30 Boundary Layer Theory and Applications. Definition of potential flow b. A functional. As for discharge coefficient, as the values of same are rather small in my system, i will take it into account as mathematical factor in my Matlab simulations(if any queries arise, will ask them again) but for the sake of of this question i have my answer. All matter is made up of tiny particles. It fills the space between the arachnoid and pia mater of the central nervous system (CNS), the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. And angular velocity of a flow is defined as, [math]ω = \dfrac{1}{2} \cdot \nabla \times \vec V \tag 1[/math]. Download a reference book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery. Permeability is a property of the porous medium that measures the capacity and ability of the formation to transmit fluids. Turbulent flow at higher velocities where h α un Where h is the head less due to friction and u is the fluid velocity. The theory described as "filament of flow" theory of one-dimensional flows deals with flows in a filament of flow limited on all sides by stream lines, and particularly with flows in pipes and closed ducts. Understanding these performance indicators with the use of CFD simulation enables engineers to explore more ideas and make better decisions. Definition of potential flow b. FLUID-FLOW THEORY A simple view of a hydrocarbon reservoir under production can be modeled as an isothermal (constant reservoir temperature), immiscible (no chemical fluid mixing) three-phase fluid flow, e. Eta is the viscosity. Boundary layer theory, in the subject of fluid mechanics with the help of this post. The flow measuring apparatus is used to familiarize the students with typical methods of flow measurement of an incompressible fluid and, at the same time demonstrate applications of the Bernoulli's equation. If surface effects are not present, flow behaves similarly in all common fluids, whether gases or liquids. On Multiphase Flow Models in ANSYS CFD Software Master's Thesis in Applied Mechanics ELIN STENMARK Department of Applied Mechanics Division of Fluid Dynamics Chalmers University of Technology ABSTRACT Multiphase flow is a common phenomenon in many industrial processes, amongst them the oil and gas industry. Note that in a counter-flow heat exchanger the outlet temperature of the cold fluid can exceed the outlet temperature of the hot fluid but this cannot happen in a parallel flow system. Try answering the questions by yourself. The theory of fluid flow, heat and mass transfer analysis over a stretching sheet/surface and porous media is an important aspect. Three common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. The Lattice Boltzmann method is used to show the sensitivity of the. Shankar Subramanian. Atmospheric pressure is like an invisible friend who is always squeezing you with a big hug. Because mass flow is measured, the measurement is not affected by fluid density changes. In turbulent flow, the velocity components and other variables (e. The fluid equation of motion in fluid dynamics is the well-known Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, which, however, cannot be applied directly here for the fluid flow in porous media due to its non-linearity and the complex of the pores network. Drag and Lift 4(e) Understand the concepts of drag and lift and be able to apply both to solve introductory problems of forces and dynamics. Thermal mass flow sensors are most often used for the regulation of low gas flows. This article describes how to incorporate friction into pressure loss or fluid flow calculations. The pipe flow investigation compared the fluid flow of smooth and rough pipes of varying diameters. WILKES Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI with contributions by STACY G. Makoto Ohta ** - Experimental Modelling 3. Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Lec-2 Fundamental Concepts of Fluid Flow & Fluid Statics. The experiment of flow meter measurement is conducted to introduce the students to the three different types of commonly used flow meter in the industry. To analysis the fluid flow complexity in fracture networks with respect to the variation of connectivity patterns, two different approaches are employed, namely, the Lattice Boltzmann method and graph theory. … the volume will be valuable for graduate students pursuing fluid mechanics research. 7 The Friction factor and Moody diagram 60 2. In steady flow, the fluid passing a given point maintains a steady velocity. 2-D potential flow theory a. A flow in which quantity of liquid flowing per second is not constant, is called unsteady flow. Since current flow is necessary for electric shock, the bird is quite safe unless it simultaneously touches another wire with a different voltage. In this way, the entire theory and practise of fluid mechanics is treated in the book, providing the student with information needed for more advanced books in specialized subjects of fluid flow treatments. The shallow-water equations can be used to describe a layer of relatively inviscid fluid with a free surface , in which surface gradients are small. 2 Drag Coefficient 78 3. Boundary layer theory When a real fluid will flow over a solid body or a solid wall, the particles of fluid will adhere to the boundary and there will be condition of no-slip. 3 The Fluid as a Continuum 6 1. Only if an open-channel flow can somehow be adjusted to be strictly uniform, in the sense that the water surface is planar and the flow depth is the same at all cross sections along the flow (Figure 5-5), can the effect of gravity in shaping the flow be ignored. Viscosity arises from the internal friction of a fluid and is defined as a liquid's resistance to flow or shear stress. Atmospheric pressure is like an invisible friend who is always squeezing you with a big hug. The Basics on How Fluid Flows in Pipes. BIRMINGHAM: Non-Newtonian Flow Mechanical Engineering Department Grove City College, PA BRIAN J. Author(s): Bruce Hunt. 81 ij vij vij i j k q D L D q p p p. 3 – Theory of DP Flow (3. Fluids can flow steadily, or be turbulent. 6 Darcy Formula 59 2. Andrew Majda. Chapter 3: FLUID FLOW CHAPTER THREE FLUID FLOW 3. @article{osti_20005637, title = {Modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in a hydrothermal crystal growth system: Use of fluid-superposed porous layer theory}, author = {Chen, Q. FLUID MECHANICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS Second Edition with Microﬂuidics and CFD JAMES O. Chapter eleven details the methods of measurement of flow rates and of pressure in fluid systems. Masud Behnia * – Basics of Fluid Mechanics 2. Fundamentals of Fluid Flow in Porous Media. Depth of a Flow Graph The depth of a flow graph is the greatest number of retreating edges along any acyclic path. Principles of Ideal Fluid Flow; The Bernoulli and Continuity Equations Some Key Definitions We next begin our consideration of the behavior of fluid dynamics, i. Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P. For simplicity, consider the flow in the yz plane shown in Fig. When you have completed this tutorial, you should be able to do the following. Fluid is a substance that (a) cannot be subjected to shear forces. Permeability is a property of the porous medium that measures the capacity and ability of the formation to transmit fluids. Prepared for the Process Fluid Transport Objectives 1) Examine the flow regimes of a fluidized bed. 250 TOP Fluid Mechanics - Mechanical Engineering Multiple choice Questions and Answers List Latest Fluid Mechanics Questions and Answers pdf free download 1. And it's inversely proportional also to the length of the tube. Note that in a counter-flow heat exchanger the outlet temperature of the cold fluid can exceed the outlet temperature of the hot fluid but this cannot happen in a parallel flow system. 1 FLUID FLOW THEORY In order to complete this tutorial you should already have completed level 1 or have a good basic knowledge of fluid mechanics equivalent to the Engineering Council part 1 examination 103. A flow in which quantity of liquid flowing per second is not constant, is called unsteady flow. In industry they are piped from storage to the point of use. The basic approach of the given measurement technique depends on the flowing medium (liquid/gas), nature of the flow (laminar/turbulent) and steady/unsteadiness of. For a more comprehensive list of citations to this article, users are encouraged to perform a search inSciFinder. Explain the meaning of viscosity. Unit Operations Lab Heat Exchanger 1-5 Figure 1-2. Fully developed pipe and duct flow a. FLUID MECHANICS D203 SAE SOLUTIONS TUTORIAL 1 - FLUID FLOW THEORY ASSIGNMENT 3 1. A fluid is either a liquid or a gas. Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids in which the viscosity is constant. Fluid Mechanics 9-2g Fluid Statics Example 2 (FEIM): The rectangular gate shown is 3 m high and has a frictionless hinge at the bottom. FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. Gimelshein Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics Perspectives on Hypersonic Viscous Flow Research. 3 – Theory of DP Flow (3. Explain the meaning of viscosity. 250 TOP Fluid Mechanics - Mechanical Engineering Multiple choice Questions and Answers List Latest Fluid Mechanics Questions and Answers pdf free download 1. Closed conduit flow - Reynolds number, Reynolds experiment - "Darcy -Weisbach" equation - Minor losses in pipes -. We use a combination of modeling, theory, and numerical simulations to study the dynamics and properties of flows involving a microstructure (such as particles, macromolecules, swimming micro-organisms, biopolymers) suspended in and interacting with a viscous fluid, as arise in many biophysical, environmental, and technological processes. All the fluids in reality have viscosity (μ > 0) and hence they are termed as real fluid and their motion is known as viscous flow. The fluid being pumped will flow through the fluid housings. External flow a. 7 The Friction factor and Moody diagram 60 2. Lab 12: Fluid Flow. This includes liquids, but gases are fluids too. }, abstractNote = {Hydrothermal synthesis, which uses aqueous solvents under high pressure and relatively low temperature, is an important technique for difficult to grow. Purdue brings together a world-class group of researchers to model these behaviors in the computer, and then apply them to real-world situations. Inertial forces: These forces hold neighboring particles in fixed relative position. This book covers the following topics: Equations of fluid motion, fluid statics, control volume method, differential equation methods, irrotational flow, laminar and turbulent flow, drag and lift, steady pipe flow, unsteady pipe flow, steady open channel flow. Mach Number: 2. A fluid is either a liquid or a gas. Mixed-flow machines: There may be significant radial-and axial-flow velocity components for the flow through the rotor row. Author(s): Bruce Hunt. All matter is made up of tiny particles. Only a good knowledge of classical Newtonian mechanics is assumed. Fluid dynamics is "the branch of applied science that is concerned with the movement of liquids and gases," according to the American Heritage Dictionary. Fluid Dynamics of Blood Flow - Modelling & Simulation 1. flow field kinematics in distinction from flow field dynamics (force considerations). For the purposes of flow in rocks we can usually assume that the flow is laminar, and this. We use a combination of modeling, theory, and numerical simulations to study the dynamics and properties of flows involving a microstructure (such as particles, macromolecules, swimming micro-organisms, biopolymers) suspended in and interacting with a viscous fluid, as arise in many biophysical, environmental, and technological processes. In a stationary (no flow) fluid condition there is a constant temperature difference between the two temperature sensors. Flow Channel of Fluid Micro Teknik are offering a wide range of Flow Channel of Fluid Mechanics Lab Equipments. Module 7 : Lecture 1. flow properties of fluids- authorSTREAM Presentation. Mach Number: 2. The theory is applicable to both direct and inverse problems and is derived primarily for use in turbomachines having thin blades of high solidity with a simple approximate. We're also assuming you have nice streamlined laminar flow. This note explains the following topics: Fluid Statics, Kinematics of Fluid, Conservation Equations and Analysis of Finite Control Volume, Equations of Motion and Mechanical Energy, Principles of Physical Similarity and Dimensional Analysis, Flow of Ideal Fluids Viscous Incompressible Flows, Laminar Boundary Layers, Turbulent Flow, Applications of Viscous Flows. 1 DESCRIBE how the density of a fluid varies with temperature. White, Fluid Mechanics 4th ed. The ratio of inertial to viscous forces is the Reynolds number. Boundary layer approximations, displacement and momentum thickness b. In Laminar Flow, all the fluid elements flow in the same direction, and none of the streamlines cross over. Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P. The fluid whose flow rate is to be measured enters the entry section of the venturi meter with a pressure P1. FLUID FLOW A fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. Lec-30 Boundary Layer Theory and Applications. moving and deforming with flow or Eulerian, i. The following are the two types of Vortex flow:. 61 A fluid is anything that flows. $\begingroup$ @MikeDunlavey : thanks for your comment, which pretty much answered my question! i am able to relate orifice diameter and Q. The rock permeability, k, is a very important rock property because it controls the directional movement and the flow rate of the reservoir fluids in the. For a better illustration of the use of dimensional analysis, take fluid flow in a circular pipe. Linear superposition c. Shear flow helps us to determine the shear force distribution in each portion of the cross-section, and is necessary to help us work out the shear centre. 8 Flow Obstruction Losses 64 2. ENABLING OBJECTIVES 1. Welcome! This is one of over 2,200 courses on OCW. Engs 22 — Systems Summer 2004 Fluid Systems Analysis Page 2 p = pressure (N/m2) Pressure is the force per unit area exerted by a fluid. Fluid flow is classified into two basic fluid states at the inlet. What is a fluid? You probably think of a fluid as a liquid, but a fluid is simply anything that can flow. Heat transfer in Flow Through Conduits. The fluid is flowing left-to-right. ICMM lecture Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics: Ideal Flow Theory 3 Deﬁnition 4 (Streamline). A non-uniform flow is one in which velocity is not constant at a given instant. 2-D potential flow theory a. Visualization is one of many experimental tools for surveying or measuring the flow of a fluid that is normally invisible due to its transparency. Fluid Mechanics by NPTEL. Vortex flow meters measure fluid velocity using a principle of operation referred to as the von Kármán effect, which states that when flow passes by a bluff body, a repeating pattern of swirling vortices is generated. 4 Factors Influencing Jet Spread 2. It has several subdisciplines, including aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. The objective questions included number 669. The Lattice Boltzmann method is used to show the sensitivity of the. $\begingroup$ @MikeDunlavey : thanks for your comment, which pretty much answered my question! i am able to relate orifice diameter and Q. Calculators for pressure drop, pipe diameter, flow rate, Venturi tube, orifice plate and much more. Nonlinear Stability Theory J T Stuart Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics COMPUTATIONAL HYPERSONIC RAREFIED FLOWS M. Depending on their flow properties solids are divided into two classes as cohesive and non cohesive. Boundary layer theory and forces due to flow of fluids over bodies are discussed in chap-ter ten. Fluid Preliminaries: By definition, a fluid is a material continuum that is unable to withstand a static shear stress. Some extra assumptions are needed, yielding the Darcy law. Visualization is one of many experimental tools for surveying or measuring the flow of a fluid that is normally invisible due to its transparency. An Introduction to Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transport The subject of transport phenomena describes the transport of momentum, energy, and mass in the form of mathematical relations [ 1 ]. The theory behind this experiment makes an assumption that there is a minimum height of water above the notch and any heights below this start to deviate from theory at an increasing rate. Inlet Manifold. For a more comprehensive list of citations to this article, users are encouraged to perform a search inSciFinder. @article{osti_20005637, title = {Modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in a hydrothermal crystal growth system: Use of fluid-superposed porous layer theory}, author = {Chen, Q. This tutorial examines boundary layer theory in some depth. 10 The Engineering Equation Solver 41. All matter is made up of tiny particles. The mixing elbow conﬁguration is encountered in piping systems in power plants and process. Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids either in motion (fluid dynamics) or at rest (fluid statics). The flow measuring apparatus is used to familiarize the students with typical methods of flow measurement of an incompressible fluid and, at the same time demonstrate applications of the Bernoulli's equation. Drag on an aeroplane or a ship and friction in a pipe are some of the common manifestation. Finally this article discusses which correlation for pressure loss in pipe is the most appropriate. A moody diagram was plotted comparing the friction factor versus the Reynolds number. The total number of illustrative numerical examples is 426. You can demonstrate that a gas flows, by doing Activity 2-1, p. Chapter 2: Pressure and Fluid Statics Pressure For a static fluid, the only stress is the normal stress since by definition a fluid subjected to a shear stress must deform and undergo motion. The principle of venturimeter is that when a fluid flows through the venturimeter, it accelerates in the convergent section and decelerates in the divergent section, resulting in a drop in the static pressure followed by a pressure recovery in the flow direction. Introduction to Turbulent Flow Turbulent Flow. Introduction: In the first experiment we validate Torricelli’s law, which shows (ignoring viscosity) that the exit speed of a fluid depends only on the height of the column of water above it. Download a reference book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery. How is Chegg Study better than a printed Viscous Fluid Flow 3rd Edition student solution manual from the bookstore? Our interactive player makes it easy to find solutions to Viscous Fluid Flow 3rd Edition problems you're working on - just go to the chapter for your book. Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. Familiar examples are the upward flow of air due to a fire or hot object and the circulation of water in a pot that is heated from below. This book contains 21 chapter with objective type question. The main purpose of this course is to give a survey on the theory of incompress-ible Navier-Stokes equations. Fluid Mechanics Continuum Continuum Mechanics Solid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Solid Mechanics Non-Newtonian Fluid Newtonian Fluid Deﬁnitions: Fluid mechanics deals with ﬂuids (both liquids and gases). 60 Particle Theory. [13] ,it will tend to flow Application of fluid mechanics in field of in to the room but once pressure inside rich a mechanical engineering certain point it will prevent additional air Creating a draft: Among the most from entering the tendency of fluid is to application of Bernoulli. Fluid Viscosity, sometimes referred to as dynamic viscosity or absolute viscosity, is the fluid's resistance to flow, which is caused by a shearing stress within a flowing fluid and between a flowing fluid and its container. Applications of viscometers Viscometers have wide and varied applications in the materials science and chemical industries for materials such as oil, asphalt, plastics, wax, paints, coatings, and adhesives. Stresses subjected on the porous material result volumetric strains and fluid diffusion in the pores. As pressure changes occur within a throttling valve, it is possible to produce 2-phase flow at the valve’s outlet for either a liquid or gas-vapor at the inlet. Makoto Ohta ** - Experimental Modelling 3. To analysis the fluid flow complexity in fracture networks with respect to the variation of connectivity patterns, two different approaches are employed, namely, the Lattice Boltzmann method and graph theory. Explain the meaning of viscosity. }, abstractNote = {Hydrothermal synthesis, which uses aqueous solvents under high pressure and relatively low temperature, is an important technique for difficult to grow. There may also be a pressure gain/loss due a change in elevation between the start and end of the pipe. 2 The Concept of a Fluid 4 1. On Multiphase Flow Models in ANSYS CFD Software Master's Thesis in Applied Mechanics ELIN STENMARK Department of Applied Mechanics Division of Fluid Dynamics Chalmers University of Technology ABSTRACT Multiphase flow is a common phenomenon in many industrial processes, amongst them the oil and gas industry. Considering laminar flow of a constant density, incompressible fluid such as for a Newtonian fluid traveling in a pipe, with a Reynolds number below the upper limit level for fully laminar flow, the pressure difference between two points along the pipe can be found from the volumetric flow rate, or vice versa. Adjust the water flow from the faucet, so that the water level in the reservoir remains stable at the desired height. Principles of Ideal Fluid Flow; The Bernoulli and Continuity Equations Some Key Definitions We next begin our consideration of the behavior of fluid dynamics, i. Fluid dynamics is the study of how fluids behave when they're in motion. Fluid flow is classified into two basic fluid states at the inlet. In laminar flow the particles in the fluid follow streamlines, and the motion of particles in the fluid is predictable. the effect of gravity on the free surface in an open-channel flow. All the fluids in reality have viscosity (μ > 0) and hence they are termed as real fluid and their motion is known as viscous flow. A number of environmental, geotechnical and structural engineering problems are intimately linked to fluid mechanics as well. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. What is Fluid Mechanics? First, What is a fluid?. A boundary layer is the thin region of flow adjacent to a surface, the layer in which the flow is influenced by the friction between the solid surface and the fluid [2]. Fluid Mechanics - Fluid Mechanics - Fluid Mechanics Video Tutorial - Fluid Mechanics video tutorials for GATE, IES, and other PSUs exams preparation and to help Mechanical Engineering Students covering Properties of fluids, Pressure Measurement, Hydrostatic Forces of Surface, Viscosity, Pascals Law, Manometers, Buoyancy and Floatation, Dynamics and Kinematic of Fluid Flow, Turbulent and. The theory was based on some important observations. Unlike an elastic solid which responds to a shear stress with a recoverable deformation, a fluid responds with an irrecoverable flow. A common shaft connects the two diaphragms. This work is the eighth in a series that develops the fundamental aspects of the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) that allows for a systematic increase in the scale at which multiphase transport phenomena is modeled in porous medium systems. Gimelshein Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics Perspectives on Hypersonic Viscous Flow Research. Basic Hydraulic Theory The basis for all hydraulic systems is expressed by Pascal's law which states that the pressure exerted anywhere upon an enclosed liquid is transmitted undiminished, in all directions, to the interior of the container. and Chatterjee, A. All the fluids in reality have viscosity (μ > 0) and hence they are termed as real fluid and their motion is known as viscous flow. 3 - Theory of DP Flow (3. In a plug flow reactor, nutrients (and sometimes organisms) are introduced to the reactor continuously and move through the reactor as a "plug". Boundary layer theory and forces due to flow of fluids over bodies are discussed in chap-ter ten. Biga, Sierra Dawson, Amy Harwell, Robin Hopkins, Joel Kaufmann, Mike LeMaster, Philip Matern, Katie Morrison-Graham, Devon Quick, Jon Runyeon Art edited and created by Leeah Whittier is licensed under a Creative Commons. Mach Number: 2. (adjective) An example of fluid is a ballet dancer with flowing movements, called fluid movements. Chapter 2: Pressure and Fluid Statics Pressure For a static fluid, the only stress is the normal stress since by definition a fluid subjected to a shear stress must deform and undergo motion. The three phases present in the pore space of the reservoir rock are oil, gas and water. Accurate measurement in a flowing medium is always desired in many applications. Fluid Flow Instrumentation In the physical world, mechanical engineers are frequently required to monitor or control the flow of various fluids through pipes, ducts and assorted vessels. WILKES Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI with contributions by STACY G. Applications of viscometers Viscometers have wide and varied applications in the materials science and chemical industries for materials such as oil, asphalt, plastics, wax, paints, coatings, and adhesives. In some situations the effect of these forces can be ignored (eg. Technical note 12, Differential pressure mass flow meter, rev. Circulation of the Cerebrospinal Fluid. It is secreted by the choroid plexuses. What is a fluid? You probably think of a fluid as a liquid, but a fluid is simply anything that can flow. The analysis involves the fundamental units of dimensions MLT: mass, length, and time. Heat leaves the warmer body or the hottest fluid, as long as there is a temperature. Ivanov and and S. This helps balance the fluid so that it can more quickly reach the fully developed flow profile distribution. Euler equations (fluid dynamics) The Euler equations can be applied to incompressible and to compressible flow – assuming the flow velocity is a solenoidal field, or using another appropriate energy equation respectively (the simplest form for Euler equations being the conservation of the specific entropy ). The diaphragm is a materials that will flex with increasing or decreasing air pressure. For periodic flow, the property change is repeated in a predictable manner whereas the fluid motion and properties are difficult to predict in random flow as in turbulent flow. Bernoulli's principle states that pressure and velocity are inversely related, or that the pressure in a fluid decreases when the fluid's velocity increases, as seen in Equation 3. In this experiment, you will investigate fluid flow in a pipe network and will explore several methods (rotameter, orifice and venturi meters) for measurement of the fluid flow rate. moving and deforming with flow or Eulerian, i. In some situations the effect of these forces can be ignored (eg. 1 Introduction 2. Fluid Flow Products and our family of companies offer best-in-class compressed air and fluid processing expertise, products and service. A ﬂuid takes the shape of its container and cannot support shear stresses. If the angle between the two intersecting lines of the boundary of the fluid element changes while moving in the flow, then the flow is a Rotational Flow. Bean REPORT OF ASME RESEARCH COMMITTEE ON FLUIDS METERS. SOLIDWORKS® Flow Simulation is an intelligent, easy-to-use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program that facilitates the work of design engineers who use SOLIDWORKS 3D CAD software for design creation. Engineering Fluid Mechanics 5 Contents 2. compressibility ml37965/mp65. This theory is meant to explain how food moves around inside plants. (adjective) An example of fluid is a ballet dancer with flowing movements, called fluid movements. The analysis involves the fundamental units of dimensions MLT: mass, length, and time. In this way, the entire theory and practise of fluid mechanics is treated in the book, providing the student with information needed for more advanced books in specialized subjects of fluid flow treatments. Chapter 2 Permeability. Turbulent flow is an extreme kind of PPT. 8 Basic Flow-Analysis Techniques 35 1. This can get very complicated, so we'll focus on one simple case, but we should briefly mention the different categories of fluid flow. KIRBY: Microﬂuidics. Welcome! This is one of over 2,200 courses on OCW. Fluid mechanics, science concerned with the response of fluids to forces exerted upon them. This theory is meant to explain how food moves around inside plants. acceleration angle Assume atmospheric pressure axis Bernoulli equation boundary layer Calculate centre of pressure cm diameter pipe coefficient constant control volume critical depth cylinder depth of flow Discharge Q downstream drag coefficient efficiency elevation estimate fluid flow Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics free surface friction factor. Fundamentals of Fluid Flow in Porous Media. Unit Operations Lab Heat Exchanger 1-5 Figure 1-2. 2) Measure pressure as a function of flowrate through a bed of particles that are not constrained. the maximum flow for a specific application. In Laminar Flow, all the fluid elements flow in the same direction, and none of the streamlines cross over. For example, a solid body moving through a gas has to overcome a certain resistance which depends on the relative velocity between fluid and solid, the shape of the solid, the. 2 Flow Due to a Wall Which is Suddenly Set in Motion 186. Flow Channel Flow Channel equipment allows the student to study water flow in an open channel and also verify the Chézy equation and Mannings Friction Factor. Pressure vs Flow. Consider an orifice is fitted with a tank. 3 – Subsonic & incompressible • 0. In the review session, we will be working some of these problems. You can demonstrate that a gas flows, by doing Activity 2-1, p. FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. Fluids can flow steadily, or be turbulent. In Laminar Flow, all the fluid elements flow in the same direction, and none of the streamlines cross over. If the flow rate is very large, or if objects obstruct the flow, the fluid starts to swirl in an erratic motion. Fluid power is pervasive, from the gas spring that holds you up in the ofﬁce chair you are sitting on, to the air drill used by dentists, to the brakes in your car, to practically every large agriculture, construction. The experiment of flow meter measurement is conducted to introduce the students to the three different types of commonly used flow meter in the industry. Transport phenomena fluid mechanics Theory : Differential Shell Momentum Balance in Cylindrical Coordinates. For periodic flow, the property change is repeated in a predictable manner whereas the fluid motion and properties are difficult to predict in random flow as in turbulent flow. This fluid can range from thick oils to light gasses. Since current flow is necessary for electric shock, the bird is quite safe unless it simultaneously touches another wire with a different voltage. Boundary layer approximations, displacement and momentum thickness b. 10 Fluid Momentum 67 2. When you have completed this tutorial, you should be able to do the following. While some techniques work better with some groups of. If a body had a deficiency of a normal share of this fluid, its charge was considered negative. Figure 3: Element of fluid in a channel flowing with uniform flow CIVE 2400: Fluid Mechanics Pipe Flow 4. Download a reference book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery. 1 FLUID FLOW THEORY In order to complete this tutorial you should already have completed level 1 or have a good basic knowledge of fluid mechanics equivalent to the Engineering Council part 1 examination 103. This includes liquids, but gases are fluids too. 025 N s/m 2. Discretization of transport equations for compressible and incompressible flow. This paper details the approach and theory behind the Cartesian mesh generation used in SOLIDWORKS Flow Simulation. Develop the fundamental principles underlying the subject. A ﬂuid takes the shape of its container and cannot support shear stresses. FLUID DYNAMICS: Various forces acting on a fluid element- Euler's and Bernoulli's equation for flow along a streamline, momentum equation and its applications for pipe bend problem. Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure—which underlies these practical disciplines —that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems. In this way, the entire theory and practise of fluid mechanics is treated in the book, providing the student with information needed for more advanced books in specialized subjects of fluid flow treatments. The dynamic viscosity is 0.